The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has not only led to human casualties but also generated a severe global economic downturn. Governments have responded with economic stimulus packages to mitigate the adverse effects of this downturn. In this paper, we analyze the economic policy responses adopted... more
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented shock in all areas of human activity. Although the pandemic is not over and a wide range of its impacts has not yet unfolded, governments are required to act promptly to diminish its negative consequences.
This brief discloses several keystones of... more
In the absence of effective therapies and vaccines, North African countries, as elsewhere, have taken comprehensive containment measures to limit the spread of COVID-19 such as closing airports and maritime boundaries, suspension of non-essential activities, and stay-at-home orders.
Given the growing impact of COVID-19, the initial measures taken by the Tunisian authorities failed to address the second wave effectively. After providing an overview of the Tunisian public debt situation prior to the pandemic and of the subsequent challenges posed by the Covid-19 crisis, the... more
The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the digital transformation strategy of firms, which have followed the technological path to support business continuity online, in response to government restrictions. The effectiveness of these business strategies depends on the familiarity and awareness of... more
Trade and integration—within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and with the rest of the world—will be critical to lowering poverty, empowering the poor, and igniting economic growth in the post-Covid era, according to the World Bank’s latest regional economic update.
The report,... more
The COVID19 pandemic has severe economic and social implications in Egypt. The resulting economic crisis is having its toll on income, employment, and poverty, and is exacerbating the hardships already faced by households and vulnerable groups in Egypt during the last 3 years. These years witnessed... more
La crise du COVID-19 est d’ampleur inédite, et vient frapper une région méditerranéenne déjà très affaiblie. Ce Brief se focalise sur l’impact économique de la crise financière du COVID-19 dans les pays du sud de cette région avec un focus sur l’emploi, la croissance, la pauvreté et les inégalités... more
The transportation sector is exposed to significant paradigm shifts and financial difficulties due to the Covid-19 epidemic in Mediterranean countries as well as all over the world. In particular, public transportation is struggling worldwide, with reduced passenger load factors of 50% to 90%. To... more
The recent coronavirus crisis threatens the health, economies, and societies of any country, regardless of its level of development. In the countries of the Middle East and of the Southern Mediterranean the fight against the pandemic is even more complicated. It must be done with limited healthcare... more